Oral Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: Care Instructions
Your Care Instructions
People with type 2 diabetes have two problems that lead to high blood sugar. Their bodies don't make enough insulin to control their blood sugar. And their bodies don't respond well to insulin when it is present. Oral medicines for type 2 diabetes can raise your insulin. They also help your body use insulin better. You take these drugs by mouth. Sometimes they are combined with insulin.
Some examples of these medicines are:
Sulfonylureas. These help the body make more insulin. They include glipizide and glyburide.
Meglitinides. These also help your body make insulin. They include nateglinide and repaglinide.
Metformin. This lowers how much glucose your liver makes. And it helps you respond better to insulin.
Thiazolidinediones. These also reduce the amount of blood glucose. They also help you respond better to insulin. These medicines include pioglitazone and rosiglitazone.
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. These keep starches from breaking down. This means that they lower the amount of glucose absorbed when you eat. They include acarbose and miglitol.
DPP-4 inhibitors. These help the body make more insulin. They also help the body make less of a hormone that raises blood sugar. They include linagliptin, saxagliptin, and sitagliptin.
Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. These help to remove extra glucose through your urine. They may also help some people lose weight. These medicines are also called SGLT2 inhibitors. They include canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin.
You may take one or more of these drugs. You and your doctor can choose the best ones for you. If pills can't control your blood sugar, you may need to use medicine that you take as a shot. These include amylinomimetics, incretin mimetics, and insulin.
You may need to use insulin for a short time if you get sick or need surgery. Drugs that you take by mouth may not control blood sugar when your body is stressed.
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.